What is cholera
Cholera is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, in the small intestine. It is an epidemic disease of the underdeveloped country that is far from reach of various facilities in the world.
What Causes cholera:
It is caused by the bacterium called VIBRIO CHOERAE – a comma shaped bacteria discovered by Robert Koch in the year 1883.
This bacterium mainly spread through the contaminated food and contaminated water.
This Bacterium in the small intestine releases the cholera toxin (CTX). CTX toxin attaches to the intestinal wall and upset the sodium and chloride levels. Leading to excess water secretions, in turn fasten the loss of fluid and electrolyte in the body.
What is the mode of transmission:
Contaminated food – bacteria is more likely to be seen in the contaminated food substances.
Contaminated water- bacteria is seen in the surface of the ponds, wells and areas where water is more stagnant for longer period.
What are the risk factors for cholera:
Various risk factors causing cholera are as follows:
starvation – due to poor nourishment risk of cholera occurrence increases
Poor water and sanitary condition in the region.
hydrochloric acid – decrease in the hydrochloric acid level leads to low level of defense against bacteria
Shellfish – eating raw or uncooked shellfish increases the risk.
Immunity – reduced immunity against the cholera bacteria.
Travelling -to the area where cholera is spreading.
Blood group – o group type blood are more likely to obtain cholera.
What are the Symptoms of cholera:
Cholera infection can cause certain symptoms as follows
Severe watery diarrhea
Dehydration – due to loss of fluid
decreased blood pressure
fast heart beat
decreased elasticity of the skin
Sever thirst and dryness
Muscle spasm and weakness
Feeling of Impatience
Dryness of mucous membrane
Decreased urine output
How to Test and diagnose cholera:
Cholera is one of the deadly diseases affecting the epidemic regions. It must be diagnosed earlier to prevent the death rate.
Only way to test or diagnose cholera is by testing the stool sample of the affected person.
Rapid dipstick method is the only quick and fast method to diagnose the presence of bacterium causing cholera.
What are the treatment for cholera:
Treatment for cholera should be started as early as possible. If left untreated lead to loss of life.
Oral rehydration salt is the best method adopted immediately to balance the loss of fluids and Salts.
In sever dehydrated conditions intravenous fluid administration is given.
How to prevent cholera:
Best to avoid travelling or make safe travelling to the epidemic regions more prone to cholera
Better hygiene should be maintained in our life style.
Avoid the intake of raw and uncooked foods.
Intake only the properly cooked food.
Use only the purified drinking water that is safer and free from contamination.
Do not skip meals and maintain a nutritional diet
Strengthen the immune system
Cholera is the epidemic disease of the poorly developed countries. Awareness should be reached to those countries to help future generation from cholera.
Contamination in our food and water should be reduced to beat the cholera prevalence in the world.