Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the disease affecting the lungs (main respiratory organ) with the characteristic obstruction in the airways, leading to breathing difficulties. It is also known as the chronic obstructive lung disease.


COPD is one of the dangerous diseases in the world leading to death. It is the chronic permanent condition mostly irreversible and incurable.


The conditions associated under or making up COPD are


1) Chronic bronchitis


Chronic bronchitis is the condition of the damage or inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles. This inflammation makes the thickening and narrowing of the airway and making the reduction in airflow in and out of the lungs.


2) Emphysema


Emphysema is the condition of the inflammation of the lung area distal to the terminal bronchioles. Mainly the air sac (alveoli) is affected. Alveoli are the area where the oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between blood and air takes place. Reduction in oxygen supply to the blood.


3) Asthma


Asthma is the narrowing of the airways of the lungs making the difficulty in the breathing process. Usually the asthma is reversible and curable.


But the chronic bronchitis and the emphysema are permanent and irreversible.


Causes and risk factors for COPD:


    • Main cause for COPD is continuous cigarette smoking