Epilepsy is a sudden abnormality in nerve impulse signal transmission in the brain which can result in set of seizures. Seizures occurring ones doesn`t really means the epileptic conditions but repeated occurrence of seizures is believed to be epilepsy.


Epilepsy is the brain disorder of idiopathic means, which refers to as unknown cause. It can affect every individual irrespective of their age.


Brain is the main organ in governing our every bodily function by transmission of nerve impulses. When this activity suddenly hyper activated seizures can occur.

Cause and risk factors:


Neurotransmitters are the chemical substance that acts between the nerve cells. Main neurotransmitters are

  1. acetylcholine
  2. serotonin
  3. GABA – Gamma amino butyric acid


When these neurotransmitters are imbalanced can cause seizures.


The mystery is still unrevealed as the cause for these chemical changes are unknown. Few epileptic condition or seizures occurs as a relation with the other trauma or disease affecting the brain cells.


Even though epilepsy as no familial history, it has few gene types are more prone to the occurrence of seizures.


Abnormality in the structure of brain can affect the nerve cell transmissions.


Head injury – any injury to the head can damage the brain function immediately or later. Can provoke as a seizures


Exposure to the poisonous gases and chemicals


Insufficient amount of oxygen supply to the brain cells


Few ailment and disorders that are most concerned to pay way for epilepsy are


  1. Cerebro vascular diseases
  2. Heart attacks
  3. Stroke
  4. Alzheimers disease
  5. Meningiti
  6. Hydrocephalus
  7. Neurocysticercosis
  8. Tumor of brain
  9. Cavernous angiomas
  10. Focal cortical dysplasia
  11. Cerebral palsy in children


These are the disorders that contribute to epilepsy by obstructing the oxygen supply to the brain cells.


Alcohol abuse can also affect the brain cells in long run.


Some may be due to medication induced.


Some have the psychological issues related.


Types of epilepsy or seizures:


Even though there are various types of epilepsy are classified only two main types are mostly categorized.


Those two are


  1. Focal or partial seizures
  2. Generalized seizures


Focal or partial seizures:


In this type of seizure the trigger of nerve impulse starts or concentrated only in one particular area of brain. It will extend or hang about in that part of brain until the seizures exist.


This focal or partial seizure is further classified as


1) Simple focal seizures:


In this the consciousness of the person is not troubled. He is attentive to the situation or surrounding during the seizure takes over.


2) Complex focal seizures:


In this type the patient will be unconscious; totally unaware of the situation happened during seizure attack. Affected person express a strange behavior involuntarily.


Generalized seizures:


In this type of seizures whole brain area is involved in the hyperactivity of the neuron excitement. The affected person completely loses their consciousness during seizure presence.


According to the symptoms displayed during generalized seizure, it can be named as follows


  • Tonic seizures
  • Atonic seizures
  • Clonic seizures
  • Myoclonic seizures
  • Tonic-clonic seizures
  • Absence seizures

Common Symptoms of epilepsy:

Symptoms of epilepsy can be seen abruptly, but it must be needed to ensure complete differentiation from other brain disorders. Most commonly seen symptoms are

  • Repetitive movements seen apparently and unfortunately
  • Person is insensitive to any order or issues asked to him
  • Few spells of fainting associated with tiredness
  • Instant spells of irregularity without obvious motivation
  • The body becomes stiff suddenly
  • Sudden loss of normal muscle tone leading to fall of person
  • Memory seems to be disorientated or in the state of confusion
  • Complete loss of consciousness during seizures
  • Show a vague impression
  • Faces difficulty in speech, chewing activity, swallowing and dribbling action
  • Impairment in sensitivity like smelling, touching and hearing
  • Collection of hurried jerky actions are seen
  • Lost control over the bowel and urinary actions
  • Racing heart pounding seen in few cases
  • Difficulty in breathing process
  • Affected person seems to be in dream like state
  • Experiences different emotion that he totally unaware of it.

When to visit a doctor

Ask for urgent medical assist if any of the following happens:


    • If seizure or convulsion preceding for more than five minutes


    • If breathing or sensitivity doesn