Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever is an acute but extremely infectious bacterial disease spread all over the world. It is also known as the enteric fever. Sometimes it can be life threatening. Commonly called us typhoid.

 

Typhoid still remains as an endemic disease in the developing countries.

 

Causes:

 

Typhoid is caused by the bacterium called salmonella typhi. This bacteria is transmitted easily through the

 

    • Contaminated food we eat

 

    • Contaminated milk and its products

 

    • Contaminated water we drink

 

    • Unhygienic hands after the use of contaminated toilets

 

  • Substandard living leads to accumulation of toxic wastes to promote typhoid

 

The bacteria enters the body goes straight to intestines then to bloodstream which take them to lymph nodes, liver, spleen, gall bladder and other parts of the body.

 

A little amount of people remain as the transporter of typhoid causing bacteria and just spread the disease by releasing the bacteria in the stool.

 

Signs and symptoms of typhoid:

 

The signs and symptoms are seen very gradually after the transmission of bacteria into the host body.

 

The most commonly seen symptoms after the onset of typhoid are

 

    • Very high fever (even up to 105 degree Fahrenheit)

 

    • Severe and continuous pain in abdomen

 

    • Severe headache

 

    • Diarrhoea is more often seen in children’s

 

    • Constipation more often in the adults

 

    • Cough for no reason

 

    • Anorexia

 

    • General weakness and tiredness

 

    • Decreased heart speed

 

    • Feeling of lethargic

 

    • Bleeding nose

 

    • Abdomen seems to be bloated or distended

 

    • Severe exhausted feeling in very few untreated cases

 

  • Significant weight loss

 

If symptom left untreated:

 

For few people who are untreated for more than four weaks following symptoms can be seen abruptly.

 

    • Unusual weight loss

 

    • Loss of desire for food

 

    • Intestinal bleeding

 

    • Hepatitis

 

    • Bronchitis

 

    • Arthritis

 

    • Osteomyelitis

 

  • Meningitis

 

In severe untreated cases, it could even leads to death.

 

Diagnosis:

 

Blood tests: Check for the blood counts, mainly the white blood cells (WBC) seems to be increased in infected condition.

 

The platelets counts are seem to be low in infected condition.

 

Blood culture is done particularly in the initial week of fever to detect the salmonella typhi bacteria.

 

Urine test: to check for the presence of bacteria’s causing typhoid.

 

Fluorescent antibody study to reveal the subject that is definitely prone to typhoid bacteria

 

Treatment for typhoid:

 

Suitable antibody administration should be started as early as possible according to the doctors advice.

 

Need to take a complete bed rest to relax is extremely important.

 

Proper liquid diet should be maintained for few weeks. Especially the orange juices are proven to be more beneficial in providing energy and increase the body stamina and immunity power.

 

High fever should be reduced with proper medication and alternate methods. Once the fever is reduced easily edible foodstuff and fresh fruits are administered.

 

Regular use of warm water enema to clear the toxic substances in the body

 

Electrolyte balance should be maintained.

 

Preventive measures for typhoid:

    • Maintain a high living standard

 

    • Drinking water only after purification

 

    • Intake of fresh fruits regularly

 

    • Intake of uncontaminated food stuffs

 

    • Eating only well cooked foods

 

    • Sewage disposal in proper manner

 

    • Anti fly means adaptation

 

    • Safer travel to the contaminated areas

 

  • Vaccination administration, but is always not an effective in preventing typhoid fever.

 

Conclusion:

 

Typhoid fever is an easily curable disease. Need proper treatment earlier in the disease progression. If left untreated to the stage of complications occurrence fatality is the only outcome. Earlier the treatment symptom seems to subside earlier.

 

Typhoid fever is most commonly seen in the developing countries. Awareness is needed to be created in all those countries to completely be free from typhoid fever.

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