Athletes with impairment which gives a discomfort to participate in the competitive sports take part in the para sports. Unlike the normal sports, para sports are categorized under many criteria. Each sport has many classifications according to the different impairments of the athletes. Classification is done according to functional system impairment and also
according to the sport they participate because each impairment affects in different way for the different sports they participate.
Classification helps to bring out the best outcome of any particular sport of the athelete. Para sports has many classes. Each class is a category which groups athletes together depending on what effects they meet in the particular sport because of their impairment. Classification also helps to bring the group of athletes with similar impairment in to a single category which is easy to conduct a fair competition and a make the right decision based on their real talent, fitness, determination and tactics.
Athletes with physical, visual and intellectual impairments and these impairments can be further divided into 10 eligible
impairment types which must be permanent in nature are determined as the eligibility of Parasport.
Impaired muscle power: Reduced force generated by muscles or muscle groups, may occur in one limb or the lower half of the body. Examples include: spinal cord injury (complete or incomplete, tetra-or paraplegia), muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome and spina bifida.
Impaired passive range of movement: Para athletes with impaired range of movement have a restriction or a lack of passive movement in one or more joints. Examples include: arthrogryposis and contracture resulting from chronic joint immobilization or trauma affecting a joint.
Loss of limb or limb deficiency: Para athletes with limb deficiency have total or partial absence of bones or joints as a consequence of trauma (for example traumatic amputation), illness (for example amputation due to bone cancer) or congenital limb deficiency (for example dysmelia).
Leg-length difference: Para athletes that have a difference in the length of their legs as a result of a disturbance of limb growth, or as a result of trauma.
Short stature: Para athletes with short stature have a reduced length in the bones of the upper and lower limbs and/or trunk. Examples include: achondroplasia, growth hormone dysfunction, and osteogenesis imperfecta.
Hypertonia: Para athletes with hypertonia have an increase in muscle tension and a reduced ability of a muscle to stretch caused by damage to the central nervous system. Examples include: cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury and stroke.
Ataxia: Para athletes with ataxia have uncoordinated movements caused by damage to the central nervous system. Examples include: cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, stroke and multiple sclerosis.
Athetosis: Para athletes with athetosis have continual slow involuntary movements. Examples include cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury and stroke.
Para athletes with impaired vision have reduced or no vision caused by damage to the eye structure, optical nerves or optical pathways, or visual cortex of the brain. Examples include: retinitis pigmentosa and diabetic retinopathy.
Para athletes with an intellectual Impairment have a restriction in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour in which affects conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills required for everyday life. This Impairment must be present before the age of 18.
Few impairments were considered to be noneligible impairments too.
Any Impairment not listed in the above is referred to as a non-eligible Impairment like :
Low muscle tone
Hypermobility of joints
Joint instability, such as unstable shoulder joint, recurrent dislocation of a joint
Impaired muscle endurance
Impaired motor reflex functions
Impaired cardiovascular function
Impaired respiratory functions
Impairment metabolic functions
Tics and mannerisms, stereotypes and motor perseveration